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Radar education


A radar is an electronic system, the abbreviation for Radio Detecting and Ranging, meaning detection and localization through radio waves. It can measure the distance and speed of an object by measuring the reflection of the radio waves that strike it. The system is composed of a transmitter and receiver, both equipped with antenna, and a signal processing system.

The transmitter transmits electromagnetic waves, while the receiver captures the waves reflected off of an object struck by them, when they bounce back towards the transmitter. Analyzing the differences between the emitted and received waves, like the signal phases, it is possible to calculate the distance of the object that reflected the waves, detect its speed and estimate other properties of the object.

LBK system of Inxpect is based on a new detection paradigm. The sensor uses proprietary algorithms to detect motion and monitor operators or machinery in a 3D coverage area. This paradigm allows static objects to be managed inside the scenario. People who are still are not actually static: the sensor can detect an operator's micro-movements from breathing.


The system automatically switches between two safety functions:

1. Access protection

2. Restart prevention

The system monitors the dangerous area

Entry into the area
⇒ ⇒ ⇒

The system scans the area to detect micro-movements

  • The safety relays are open
  • Sensor sensitivity is extremely high
  • Static objects are automatically excluded
  • The field of detection is fixed: 110°/30°
  • The restart mechanism requires 10 seconds to be reliable
  • Installation restrictions for applications less than 30 cm in height

Area free
⇐ ⇐ ⇐

  • The safety relays are closed
  • Sensor sensitivity is lower
  • Static objects are automatically excluded
  • The detection field is configurable: 110°/30° or 50°/15°
  • Monitoring limitations for installations less than one meter in height

RCS (radar cross section) is a measurement that indicates how much an object is detectable by a radar. The higher the RCS, the higher the probability that a radar can reveal the object. The quantity of electromagnetic energy that returns to the source is determined by a series of factors, including:

1. the material that the target is made of.
2. the absolute size of the target.
3. the relative dimension of the target in relation to the wavelength used by the illuminating radar.
4. the polarization of the radiation transmitted and received.
5. the angle of incidence (inclination of the radar beam that strikes a specific portion of the target).
6. the angle of reflection (inclination with which the reflected beam departs from the part of the target that was struck).

The radar used by the Inxpect sensors is an FMCW (Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave) type, which emits impulses that always have different frequencies. This type of radar, which is very safe, because it emits no high-power waves, can also measure very small distances (up to the length of the wave) and can measure several objects simultaneously.


In comparison to other technologies, radar technology is much more resistant to environmental disturbances, like smoke, dust, water or swarf generated by production processes. LBK sensors are suitable for both indoor and outdoor applications and can be positioned up to 3 m high. Every LBK controller can manage up to 6 LBK-S01 radar sensors. System parameters are configured through the Inxpect Safety Application.


Wide coverage field


Narrow coverage field

The detection fields for the radar sensors have uncertain areas where the ability to detect a target is not guaranteed. With current technology, this area is approximately 30 cm and can generate false alarms if not correctly managed.

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